There are various types of marine resources. Marine recourses can be classified into material and spatial resources, and material recourses can further be divided into living and non-living resources. The living resources include marine plants, fish, crustaceans, mollusks, and mammals.
– Material Resources of the Ocean –
The significant amount of marine recourses of the ocean shows infinite potential because useful materials can be extracted for biotechnology in the future. The non-living recourses include fossil fuels such as oil, coal, and natural gas, as well as aggregates such as sand and pebbles. Non-living resources also include placer deposits located in shallow seas such as gold, platinum, and tin. Sulfide heavy metals, which have plentiful amounts of manganese, nickel, copper and cobalt in the deep seafloor, in addition to sulfide mineral deposits, which are plentiful in copper, zinc, and silver are non-living recourses as well. The importance of mineral resources in the ocean is increasing in the current situation where land-based natural resources are becoming exhausted.
– Spatial Recourses and Energy Resources of the Ocean –
(The Palm Islands in Dubai)
The spatial recourses of the ocean indicate all spaces above the sea, in the sea, and on the seabed. The spatial resources become the stage for human activity performed on the ocean including transportation, production, residential activities, storage, tourism, and leisure. As the size of the economy grows and the population increases, the seashores, ocean spaces between islands, and beaches are becoming popular as future resources with high utility. In addition, the need to develop the ocean as a second national territory for tourism, residential purposes, and industrial purposes, is increasing.
Countries that are developed in marine technology such as Japan, the United States, and Australia, have already constructed an artificial island. Specifically, Japan has proceeded on Marinopolis, which is a marine industrial city construction project. Korea has mainly focused on the west coast for its reclamation project, however, the importance of developing and managing business on the south and east seas has become apparent. Moreover, regarding alternative energy in the 21st century, attempts to use ocean energy have continued, which will possibly lead to generation plants using tidal energy, wave power, and ocean thermal energy conversion.